Although the continuous soaring trend of cancer incidence and mortality rate may seem frightening, many cancers are indeed preventable. Strong evidence has suggested that cancer risk can be greatly reduced by changing ones’ life style and eating habit. In order to increase awareness of the general public, experts from the World Cancer Research Fund International and American Institute for Cancer Research have been working closely together for years to study the relationships between diet, nutrition, physical activity, weight and cancers.

The main preventive measures of different cancers are as follows:


  • Be physically active
  • Consume more dietary fiber
  • Eat less red meat and processed meat
  • Maintain healthy body weight *
  • Avoid drinking alcohol
Colorectal Cancer


  • Consume more vegetables and fruits
  • Do not smoke
  • Avoid second-handed smoking
  • Avoid places with pollution
Lung Cancer


  • Lactation for a longer period
  • Be physically active
  • Maintain healthy body weight *
  • Avoid drinking alcohol
Breast Cancer


  • Maintain healthy body weight *
  • Avoid drinking alcohol
  • Vaccination
  • Do not smoke
  • Avoid second-handed smoking
Liver Cancer


  • Maintain healthy body weight *
Prostate Cancer


  • Avoid drinking alcohol
  • Consume less preserved food
  • Consume less processed meat
  • Maintain healthy body weight *
Stomach Cancer


  • Be physically active
  • Maintain healthy body weight *
Endometrial Cancer


  • Avoid sun burnt
  • Use sunscreen everyday
  • Avoid UV tanning beds
Skin Cancer


  • Consume more vegetables and fruits
  • Eat less salted fish
Nasopharyngeal Cancer


  • Eat less red meat and processed meat
  • Do not smoke
  • Avoid second-handed smoking
Pancreatic Cancer


  • Do not smoke
  • Avoid second-handed smoking
  • Vaccination
  • Avoid engaging in early sex and having multiple sex partners
Cervical Cancer


  • Avoid drinking alcohol
  • Do not smoke
  • Avoid second-handed smoking
  • Maintain healthy body weight *
Oesophageal Cancer


  • Avoid drinking alcohol
  • Do not smoke
  • Avoid second-handed smoking
  • Maintain healthy body weight *
Kidney Cancer

Source of information:
World Cancer Research Fund International/American Institute for Cancer Research.Continuous Update Project Report. All reports are available at www.wcrf.org/cupreports


* Body Mass Index (BMI) is an international measurement for overweight and obesity, healthy weight for Asian is having BMI between 18.5 and 22.9. Calculation: Weight(kg)/Height(m)2

All in all, cancer prevention can be summarized in 13 points:

1 2
Quit smoking and do not consume tobacco related products of any kinds. Maintain healthy body weight, do not overweight or underweight.
3 4
Do at least 30 minutes of aerobic exercises every day. Avoid food in high fat or high sugar content.
5 6
Avoid salty and pickled food for example salted-fish and preserved vegetables. Consume more vegetables, fruits and food in high dietary fiber.
7 8
Consume less red meat and processed meat Avoid drinking alcohol
9 10
Do not depend on supplement for nutrients. Lactation for a longer period. (at least six months is preferred)
11 12
Practise safe sex, perform regular pap smear testing and get vaccinated to gain protection against HPV. Receive hepatitis B vaccination which helps to prevent liver cancer.
13  
Avoid prolonged time of sun exposure at any ages.